The name “semi-conductor” is widely known, so what is semiconductor?

What is semi-conductor?

Semiconductors are substances that have special electrical properties. A substance that allows current to flow through is called an electrical conductor. Besides, a substance that does not allow electricity to flow through is called an insulator. Semiconductors are substances that have an intermediate electrical conductivity. It is between the conductor and the insulator.

The electrical conductivity of a substance is characterized by its resistivity. Conductors such as gold, silver and copper have small resistivity. That makes it easy for them to flow. Insulators such as rubber, glass, ceramics have high resistivity. That makes it difficult for them to pass through.

Semiconductors are electrically conductive in the middle of the two types. The value of the resistivity may vary with temperature. For example, with semiconductors at low temperatures, they almost do not allow electric current to pass, but when the temperature rises they allow the electric current to pass easily.

Pure semiconductors do not contain impurities that are almost non-conductive. But when doped with some impurities they become more conductive and let the electricity flow through them easily.

Semiconductors consist of a single element called elemental semiconductors, for example the most common semiconductor is silicon. Semiconductors, on the other hand, are made up of two or more components called semiconductor compounds, and are used in semiconductor lasers, light-emitting diodes, etc.